Physics: the Physical Setting 2015 by Prentice Hall (2 star ratings)
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor , such as metallic copper, and an insulator , such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is the behaviour opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities " doping " into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of charge carriers which include electrons , ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes , transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon , germanium , gallium arsenide , and elements near the so-called " metalloid staircase " on the periodic table. After silicon, gallium arsenide is the second most common semiconductor [ citation needed ] and is used in laser diodes, solar cells, microwave-frequency integrated circuits and others.
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