Monarchs and Milkweed: A Migrating Butterfly, a Poisonous Plant, and Their Remarkable Story of Coevolution by Anurag AgrawalThe fascinating and complex evolutionary relationship of the monarch butterfly and the milkweed plant
Monarch butterflies are one of natures most recognizable creatures, known for their bright colors and epic annual migration from the United States and Canada to Mexico. Yet there is much more to the monarch than its distinctive presence and mythic journeying. In Monarchs and Milkweed, Anurag Agrawal presents a vivid investigation into how the monarch butterfly has evolved closely alongside the milkweed--a toxic plant named for the sticky white substance emitted when its leaves are damaged--and how this inextricable and intimate relationship has been like an arms race over the millennia, a battle of exploitation and defense between two fascinating species.
The monarch life cycle begins each spring when it deposits eggs on milkweed leaves. But this dependency of monarchs on milkweeds as food is not reciprocated, and milkweeds do all they can to poison or thwart the young monarchs. Agrawal delves into major scientific discoveries, including his own pioneering research, and traces how plant poisons have not only shaped monarch-milkweed interactions but have also been culturally important for centuries. Agrawal presents current ideas regarding the recent decline in monarch populations, including habitat destruction, increased winter storms, and lack of milkweed--the last one a theory that the author rejects. He evaluates the current sustainability of monarchs and reveals a novel explanation for their plummeting numbers.
Lavishly illustrated with more than eighty color photos and images, Monarchs and Milkweed takes readers on an unforgettable exploration of one of natures most important and sophisticated evolutionary relationships.
Top 8 Unusual Butterflies ! - Most poisonous species 2018
A number of butterfly species are toxic or unpalatable against predators by developing mechanisms either to biosynthesize such noxious elements de novo or to acquire directly from the poisonous host plants for their own defense. A Danaus chrysippus -mimicking nymphalid, Argyreus hyperbius , is a typical example of the female-limited dimorphic mimics. However, A.
Which butterflies are poisonous?
Papilio antimachus , the African giant swallowtail , is a butterfly in the family Papilionidae. With a wingspan between 18 and 23 centimetres 7. The wings are long and narrow and the ground colour is orange brown with black markings. The male is larger than the female and can be seen in groups at nectar. The females show themselves less, continually flying high above the tree tops. The butterfly has no natural enemies because it is very toxic.
Butterflies are beautiful creatures that can make your gardens look healthy and colorful. Kids love to chase butterflies in the garden and play with them when caught. However, are these butterflies any danger to the human beings? While they pose no real threat to the people, however, they are insects and can cause general irritation when they release the hairs as part of their defense mechanism. Some butterflies have hair that is capable of causing a rash when they come in contact with human skin.
The monarch butterfly or simply monarch Danaus plexippus is a milkweed butterfly subfamily Danainae in the family Nymphalidae. The western North American population of monarchs west of the Rocky Mountains often migrates to sites in southern California but has been found in overwintering Mexican sites as well. The name "monarch" is believed to be given in honor of King William III of England , whose secondary title Prince of Orange makes a reference to the butterfly's main color. In Homeric Greek , his name means "one who urges on horses", i. In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae , at the bottom of page ,  Linnaeus wrote that the names of the Danai festivi , the division of the genus to which Papilio plexippus belonged, were derived from the sons of Aegyptus. Linnaeus divided his large genus Papilio , containing all known butterfly species, into what we would now call subgenera.