Better Learning Through Structured Teaching: A Framework for the Gradual Release of Responsibility by Douglas FisherThis is a clear introduction to the gradual release of responsibility - for novice educators or for professional learning providers who are seeking language to make this concept transparent for others. Whats different about Fisher and Freys approach is that they incorporate collaborative learning into the gradual release - just before independent learning. So you have -
a focus lesson (teacher explains and models)
collaborative learning (which may take place while others are in a small group for guided instruction)
Whats essential is that you also read the authors book Productive Group Work - they tease out the complexities of effective collaborative learning and make it appealing.
Towards the end of Better Learning, though - a novice educator might lose site of how to make this all work - how to lead guided instruction while others are working collaboratively or independently - how to organize the big picture. Some of the authors suggestions for collaborative work - like literature circles - require their own focus lessons and guided practice. Also, the authors focus on suggesting and do not make clear how the pieces fit together to make a cohesive block of learning time.
Teaching Approaches and the Gradual Release of Responsibility Framework
Chapter 1. Learning, or Not Learning, in School
These publications are for personal use only. Please honor copyright guidelines. Click on the title to obtain the article. Fisher, D. Collaborative conversations.
The Gradual Release of Responsibility framework fundamentally changes the role of the teacher. Whereas teachers are often thought of as lecturers who impart wisdom, this four-step process turns that model on its head. The teacher sets the stage and prompts the students to work together to find answers on their own even though there are points of direct instruction in the GRR framework. One of the keys to the GRR is flexibility. The four phases of the framework do not have to be taught in a linear manner. Rather, teachers can advance through each phase, or take a step back to repeat a phase, so that the student learning process is dynamic and responsive to their needs.
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This professional development initiative will introduce you to the model of instruction known as the Gradual Release of Responsibility GRR Framework for Active Learning. The GRR is a four-step teaching method designed to foster student collaboration and create active learning environments. The Gradual Release of Responsibility is a dynamic instructional model that moves from teacher knowledge to student understanding and application through four interrelated phases. Click through the following slideshow to get a sense of how the GRR can enhance your teaching. The era of the passive classroom, in which teachers lecture and students listen silently, is over. Gradual Release of Responsibility is a four-step model that focuses on student collaboration, engagement and curiosity. Copyright by ASCD.
The gradual release of responsibility model or GRR model is a particular style of teaching which is a structured method of pedagogy framed around a process devolving responsibility within the learning process from the teacher to the eventual independence of the learner. This instructional model requires that the teacher, by design, transitions from assuming "all the responsibility for performing a task As Buehl stated, the GRR model "emphasizes instruction that mentors students into becoming capable thinkers and learners when handling the tasks with which they have not yet developed expertise". The teacher guides the students to a point of ' planned obsolescence ' on the part of the teacher " One element which is crucial to the success of the GRR model is the notion related to ' instructional scaffolding ', which is grounded in Vygotsky's concept of the " zone of proximal development " ZPD. This is described as the distance between the actual developmental level of a learner as determined by their independent problem solving abilities and the level of potential development through problem-solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.