Hadrians Wall by Adrian Goldsworthy
From an award-winning historian of ancient Rome, a definitive history of Hadrians Wall
Stretching eighty miles from coast to coast across northern England, Hadrians Wall is the largest Roman artifact known today. It is commonly viewed as a defiant barrier, the end of the empire, a place where civilization stopped and barbarism began. In fact, the massive structure remains shrouded in mystery. Was the wall intended to keep out the Picts, who inhabited the North? Or was it merely a symbol of Roman power and wealth? What was life like for soldiers stationed along its expanse? How was the extraordinary structure built--with what technology, skills, and materials?
In Hadrians Wall, Adrian Goldsworthy embarks on a historical and archaeological investigation, sifting fact from legend while simultaneously situating the wall in the wider scene of Roman Britain. The result is a concise and enthralling history of a great architectural marvel of the ancient world.
Hadrian's Wall - Housesteads Fort Walkthrough - Medieval Engineers
Hadrian's Wall (Latin: Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum . Although Hadrian's biographer wrote "[Hadrian] was the first to build a wall Another theory is of a simpler variety—that Hadrian's Wall was partly constructed to reflect the power of Rome and was used as a political point by Hadrian.
The wall extended from coast to coast across the width of northern Britain; it ran for 73 miles km from Wallsend Segedunum on the River Tyne in the east to Bowness on the Solway Firth in the west. The original plan was to construct a stone wall 10 Roman feet wide a Roman foot is slightly larger than a standard foot and at least 12 feet high for the eastern sector and a turf rampart 20 Roman feet wide at the base for the western sector; both were fronted by a ditch, except where the crags rendered this superfluous. Before this scheme was completed, forts were built on the wall line at roughly 7-mile intervals and an earthwork, known as the vallum, dug behind the wall and the forts. Probably at this stage the stone wall was narrowed from 10 Roman feet wide to about 8 feet. The fortlets, towers, and forts continued for at least 26 miles 42 km beyond Bowness southward down the Cumbrian coast.
When in operation, it served as the most northerly frontier of the Roman Empire. Construction started around A. England and Wales had both fallen to Roman control by A. University of Edinburgh researcher Nic Fields notes that, when originally constructed, the eastern portion of the wall was built of stone and ran for 41 miles 65 km , ending at Newcastle upon Tyne eventually this was expanded further east to Wallsend. It measured about 10 feet 3 meters wide and perhaps 15 feet 4. The western portion of the wall, on the other hand, was made of turf and extended for 29 miles 47 km , ending at Bowness-on-Solway.
Hadrian's Wall Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Architecture ; British History and before including Roman Britain This article is part of the series on: Military of ancient Rome Portal BC - AD Structural history Roman army unit types , legions , generals Roman navy fleets , admirals Campaign history Wars Battles Technological history Military engineering castra , siege engines Personal equipment Political history Strategy and tactics Infantry tactics Hadrian's Wall Latin: Vallum Hadriani was a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of Great Britain to prevent military raids by the tribes of what is now Scotland to the north, to improve economic stability and provide peaceful conditions in the Roman province of Britannia to the south, to physically mark the frontier of the Empire, and to separate the unruly Selgovae tribe in the north from the Brigantes in the south and discourage them from uniting. The name is also sometimes used jocularly as a synonym for the border between Scotland and England , although for most of its length the wall follows a line well south of the modern border — and neither the Scoti tribe nor the English lived in Britain at the time of the wall's construction. The wall was the northern border of the Empire in Britain for much of the Roman Empire's rule, and also the most heavily fortified border in the Empire. In addition to its use as a military fortification, it is thought that the gates through the wall would also have served as customs posts to allow trade taxation. A significant portion of the wall still exists, particularly the mid-section, and for much of its length the wall can be followed on foot.
The original structure stretched more than 70 miles across the northern English countryside from the River Tyne near the city of Newcastle and the North Sea, west to the Irish Sea. The remnants of a stone wall are still visible in many places. The Romans first attempted to invade the island now known as Britain in 55 B. Claudius sent Aulus Plautius and some 24, soldiers to Britain, and by 79 A. However, they were still meeting fierce resistance from Celtic warriors in what is now northern England. Under the rule of Emperor Vespasian, the Romans desperately wanted the region now known as Scotland to be part of their growing empire. However, the Scottish fighters, known as Caledonians, fought steadfastly.