The Physics of Baseball by Robert K. AdairBlending scientific fact and sports trivia, Robert Adair examines what a baseball or player in motion does-and why. How fast can a batted ball go? What effect do stitch patterns have on wind resistance? How far does a curve ball break? Who reaches first base faster after a bunt, a right- or left-handed batter? The answers are often surprising -- and always illuminating.
This newly revised third edition considers recent developments in the science of sport such as the neurophysiology of batting, bat vibration, and the character of the sweet spot. Faster pitchers, longer hitters, and enclosed stadiums also get a good, hard scientific look to determine their effects on the game.
Filled with anecdotes about famous players and incidents, The Physics of Baseball provides fans with fascinating insights into Americas favorite pastime.
How does Weather affect Baseball
Baseball Trajectory Calculator--old version Baseball Trajectory Calculator--new 2D version Baseball Trajectory Calculator--new 3D version Click on any link to go to a page with a description and download of a tool that can be used to do baseball trajectory calculations. This is a beautifully written article about the aerodynamics of sports balls, including the effects of gravity, drag, and lift. He treats such diverse topics as the peculiar trajectory of a shuttlecock badminton , the famous Roberto Carlos free kick soccer , paradoxical popups baseball , knuckleballs lots of different sports , and the optimum size of different sports fields. He does what every good physicist should do: He reduces each problem to its bare essentials, making the necessary approximations in order to identify the underlying physics for each of the examples. This paper is a must read for anyone wanting to learn a physicist's approach to the physics of sports. Here are links to additional articles co-authored by Clanet, along with colleagues and students: On the Size of Sports Fields This paper describes how the size of a sports field is related to properties of the ball mass, diameter, drag coefficient and the maximum velocity of the ball in the game.
As we near baseball season, I thought I post a brief, introductory-type of how weather affects the sport of baseball. As the air warms up this makes for less wind in the air as less friction is possible, and it can make hitting the ball easier for batters. This would favor the picther as the ball would be slighty faster and there will be a little bit more velocity behind it compare to colder days. Altitude helps out with baseball. The higher the altitude, as in Coloardo or in Utah, the air and baramertic pressure are decrease, or lower, thus would make the ability to hit the ball and the drag behind it would increase compare to those of lower altitude like in Flordia, and Texas. As conditions worsen, as in rain as you see in the early spring or in the fall, the baseball becomes heavier.
To hit a ball the maximum possible distance, the trajectory off the bat should have a degree angle. A line drive travels yards in 4 seconds. A fly to the outfield travels 98 yards in 4. An average head wind 10 mph can turn a foot home run into a foot routine out. Excluding meteorologically strange conditions, a batted ball cannot travel longer than feet.
Aerodynamics & Curve Balls
The central drama in the game of baseball is the confrontation between the pitcher and the batter. In this intense struggle, the pitcher usually wins. A batting average of. A fastball covers the distance from the mound to the plate in less than half a second, requiring lightning reflexes and judgment from the batter to even make contact. So when the hitter does make contact, he has to try to make the most of it. As Brian Johnson, formerly a catcher with the San Francisco Giants, describes it, a hitter has to be aware of wind and atmospheric conditions to get the most out of a hit: "Sometimes the wind might be blowing somewhat in towards the plate in left field, and slightly out of the park in right. In that case, you might take advantage by trying to hit the ball towards right.
The Arizona Diamondbacks finished the season with the fourth-lowest home run total in the National League. Dusty Baker pulled Prior after pitches. Do atmospheric conditions, particularly wind, really have a significant effect on home run production? I used game time weather reports for all major league baseball games from the and seasons to evaluate the effect of wind on fly balls across all major league ballparks. That is, the frequency of home runs within each group is about what we would expect if the results were randomly distributed. Probably not. The categories are crudely constructed.