Existence And Being by Martin HeideggerMartin Heidegger (1889–1976) was a German philosopher whose work is perhaps most readily associated with phenomenology and existentialism, although his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification. His ideas have exerted a seminal influence on the development of contemporary European philosophy. They have also had an impact far beyond philosophy, for example in architectural theory (see e.g., Sharr 2007), literary criticism (see e.g., Ziarek 1989), theology (see e.g., Caputo 1993), psychotherapy (see e.g., Binswanger 1943/1964, Guignon 1993) and cognitive science (see e.g., Dreyfus 1992, 2008; Wheeler 2005; Kiverstein and Wheeler forthcoming).
Are You Authentic? (Heidegger + River City Ransom) – 8-Bit Philosophy
Dasein is a German word that means "being there" or "presence and is often translated into English with the word "existence". It is a fundamental concept in the existential philosophy of Martin Heidegger, In German, Dasein is the vernacular term for "existence", as in "I am pleased with my existence" (Ich bin mit meinem.
Being and Existence
Martin Heidegger — was a German philosopher whose work is perhaps most readily associated with phenomenology and existentialism, although his thinking should be identified as part of such philosophical movements only with extreme care and qualification. His ideas have exerted a seminal influence on the development of contemporary European philosophy. They have also had an impact far beyond philosophy, for example in architectural theory see e. Martin Heidegger was born in Messkirch, Germany, on September 26, Messkirch was then a quiet, conservative, religious rural town, and as such was a formative influence on Heidegger and his philosophical thought. In he spent two weeks in the Jesuit order before leaving probably on health grounds to study theology at the University of Freiburg. In he switched subjects, to philosophy.
Being and existence in philosophy are related and somewhat overlapping with respect to their meanings. Classical Greek had no independent word of "existence. Influenced by Islamic philosophy that recognized the contingency of the created world as compared with God the Creator, Christian philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas used the Latin word "existere" "to exist" or "to appear" as distinct from "esse" "to be" or "essentia" "essence". The Medieval distinction between essence and existence in the world, however, was critiqued by later theologians and philosophers for various reasons. Modern existentialism maintained the distinction between essence and existence, but reversed the Medieval priority of essence over existence. The German philosopher Martin Heidegger , who critiqued the Thomistic theory of the causal relationship of difference between God and the world as well as its related theory of the distinction between essence and existence, dealt with the question of being in a very new way that involved the human being as Dasein "being-there" , which to him is synonymous with existence.
It is a fundamental concept in the existential philosophy of Martin Heidegger , particularly in his magnum opus Being and Time. Heidegger uses the expression Dasein to refer to the experience of being that is peculiar to human beings. Thus it is a form of being that is aware of and must confront such issues as personhood , mortality and the dilemma or paradox of living in relationship with other humans while being ultimately alone with oneself. In German, Dasein is the vernacular term for "existence", as in "I am pleased with my existence" Ich bin mit meinem Dasein zufrieden. The term has been used by several philosophers before Heidegger, most notably Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , with the meaning of human "existence" or "presence". The opposite of this authentic self is everyday and inauthentic Dasein, the forfeiture of one's individual meaning, destiny and lifespan, in favour of an escapist immersion in the public everyday world—the anonymous, identical world of the They and the Them.
Martin Heidegger is widely acknowledged to be one of the most original and important philosophers of the 20 th century, while remaining one of the most controversial. His critique of traditional metaphysics and his opposition to positivism and technological world domination have been embraced by leading theorists of postmodernity Derrida , Foucault , and Lyotard.
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Martin Heidegger on The Existential Analysis of Dasein (Being and Time) - Philosophy Core Concepts
Descartes, writing to Picot, who translated the Principia Philosophiae into French, observed: "Thus the whole of philosophy is like a tree: the roots are metaphysics, the trunk is physics, and the branches that issue from the trunk are all the other sciences. Sticking to this image, we ask: In what soil do the roots of the tree of philosophy have their hold? Out of what ground do the roots-and through them the whole tree-receive their nourishing juices and strength? What element, concealed in the ground, enters and lives in the roots that support and nourish the tree? What is the basis and element of metaphysics? What is metaphysics, viewed from its ground?